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Scientific experiments must be carried out with great care to eliminate as much error as possible, and to keep error estimates realistic.

In the classical definition, which is standard throughout the physical sciences, measurement is the determination or estimation of ratios of quantities. Extremely Under Sale Online Essential Top BIGINNING 003 by VIDA VIDA Looking For Sale Online Discount Get To Buy Cheap Price Wholesale 6hWQ3UJy
Quantity and measurement are mutually defined: quantitative attributes are those possible to measure, at least in principle. The classical concept of quantity can be traced back to John Wallis and Printed Racerback Top Hexagram 10 L Cheap Manchester Great Sale U3iXm6qO
, and was foreshadowed in Euclid's Elements . [12]

In the representational theory, measurement is defined as "the correlation of numbers with entities that are not numbers". Hilfiger Denim Mens Slim Tapered Steve Belb Jeans Tommy Jeans Big Discount Online From China Free Shipping Low Price Get Authentic Cheap Price Discount Supply Browse Sale Online dvJbhVO
The most technically elaborated form of representational theory is also known as additive conjoint measurement . In this form of representational theory, numbers are assigned based on correspondences or similarities between the structure of number systems and the structure of qualitative systems. A property is quantitative if such structural similarities can be established. In weaker forms of representational theory, such as that implicit within the work of Stanley Smith Stevens , plaid print midi skirt Multicolour Astraet Buy Cheap Pay With Visa K0tl7
numbers need only be assigned according to a rule.

The concept of measurement is often misunderstood as merely the assignment of a value, but it is possible to assign a value in a way that is not a measurement in terms of the requirements of additive conjoint measurement. One may assign a value to a person's height, but unless it can be established that there is a correlation between measurements of height and empirical relations, it is not a measurement according to additive conjoint measurement theory. Likewise, computing and assigning arbitrary values, like the "book value" of an asset in accounting, is not a measurement because it does not satisfy the necessary criteria.

Three type of Representational theory

1) Empirical relation

In science, an empirical relationship is a relationship or correlation based solely on observation rather than theory. An empirical relationship requires only confirmatory data irrespective of theoretical basis

2) The rule of mapping

The real world is the Domain of mapping, and the mathematical world is the range. when we map the attribute to mathematical system, we have many choice for mapping and the range

3) The representation condition of measurement

Information theory recognises that all data are inexact and statistical in nature. Thus the definition of measurement is: "A set of observations that reduce uncertainty where the result is expressed as a quantity." panelled leggings Black Lygia amp; Nanny High Quality Best Store To Get XcxeVtA
This definition is implied in what scientists actually do when they measure something and report both the and Secret Crocheted Cotton Maxi Dress White Mes Demoiselles New Arrival Online Q4jML2pL
of the measurements. In practical terms, one begins with an initial guess as to the expected value of a quantity, and then, using various methods and instruments, reduces the uncertainty in the value. Note that in this view, unlike the Floral print dress Blugirl Buy Cheap Low Cost Good Selling Cheap Price Cheap Sale Good Selling Pay With Paypal Cheap Online Cheap Sale Amazon fTJYK6z
representational theory, all measurements are uncertain, so instead of assigning one value, a range of values is assigned to a measurement. This also implies that there is not a clear or neat distinction between estimation and measurement.

A typical supermarket carries an assortment of between 30,000 and 60,000 different products

The term product assortment refers to the combination of both product breadth and depth. The main characteristics of a company's product assortment are: TOPWEAR Vests Ba Printed Artworks Marketable Online Official Site Sale Online Inexpensive Online Good Service LNoThYi

For a retailer, finding the right balance between breadth and depth can be a key to success. An average supermarket might carry 30,000–60,000 different product lines (product length or assortment), but might carry up to 100 different types of toothpaste (product depth). [78] Speciality retailers typically carry fewer product lines, perhaps as few as 20 lines, but will normally stock greater depth. Costco, for example, carries 5,000 different lines while carries just 1,400 lines per store. Johnny Bodycon in White size L also in MSXLXSXXS NBD Clearance Pay With Paypal Enjoy Sale Online HOcD7MXt0

Discount grocery retailer, , has successfully trimmed the number of product lines it carries to about 1,400

Large assortments offer consumers many benefits, notably increased choice and the possibility that the consumer will be able to locate the ideal product. However, for the retailer, larger assortments incur costs in terms of record-keeping, managing inventory, pricing and risks associated with wastage due to spoiled, shopworn or unsold stock. Carrying more stock also exposes the retailer to higher risks in terms of slow-moving stock and lower sales per square foot of store space. On the other hand, reducing the number of product lines can generate cost savings through increased stock turnover by eliminating slow-moving lines, fewer stockouts, increased bargaining power with suppliers, reduced costs associated with wastage and carrying inventory, and higher sales per square foot which means more efficient space utilisation.

When determining the number of product lines to carry, the retailer must consider the store type, store's physical storage capacity, the perishability of items, expected turnover rates for each line and the customer's needs and expectations.

Self-service is a more cost efficient way to deliver goods

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is the "sum of acts and elements that allow consumers to receive what they need or desire from [the] retail establishment." Retailers must decide whether to provide a full service outlet or minimal service outlet, such as no-service in the case of vending machines; self-service with only basic sales assistance or a full service operation as in many boutiques and speciality stores. In addition, the retailer needs to make decisions about sales support such as customer delivery and after sales customer care.

Retailing services may also include the provision of credit, delivery services, advisory services, exchange/ return services, product demonstration, special orders, customer loyalty programs, limited-scale trial, advisory services and a range of other supporting services. Retail stores often seek to differentiate along customer service lines. For example, some department stores offer the services of a stylist ; a fashion advisor, to assist customers selecting a fashionable wardrobe for the forthcoming season, while smaller boutiques may allow regular customers to take goods home on approval , enabling the customer to try out goods before making the final purchase. The variety of supporting services offered is known as the service type. At one end of the spectrum, self-service operators offer few basic support services. At the other end of the spectrum, full-service operators offer a broad range of highly personalised customer services to augment the retail experience. Oversized Striped Cottonpoplin Shirt Dress Blue Balenciaga Really Cheap Clearance Visit TyM4CC4

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The University of Georgia (“the University”) is committed to maintaining a fair and respectful environment for living, work and study. To that end, and in accordance with federal and state law, University System of Georgia policy, and University policy, the University prohibits harassment of or discrimination against any person because of race, color, sex (including sexual harassment and pregnancy), sexual orientation, gender identity, ethnicity or national origin, religion, age, genetic information, disability, or veteran status by any member of the University Community (as defined below) on campus, in connection with a University program or activity, or in a manner that creates a hostile environment for any member of the University Community. Incidents of harassment and discrimination will be met with appropriate disciplinary action, up to and including dismissal or expulsion from the University.

Bias based on the protected categories of race, color, sex (including sexual harassment and pregnancy), sexual orientation, gender identity, ethnicity or national origin, religion, age, genetic information, disability, or veteran status will not hinder employment, study or institutional services, programs or activities. Bias factors will not be permitted to have an adverse influence upon decisions regarding students, employees, applicants for admission, applicants for employment, contractors, or volunteers or participants in or users of institutional programs, services, and activities. The University of Georgia will continue in its efforts to maintain an institutional environment free of such bias and restates its policy prohibiting the interference of such bias.

The University will follow the Board of Regents Student Sexual Misconduct Policy 6.7 found at Agira pants Multicolour Mes Demoiselles Buy Authentic Online fihu6
. All allegations of discrimination and harassment not covered by the Board of Regents Student Sexual Misconduct Policy based on the protected categories will be handled pursuant to this Policy.

Every member of the University Community is expected to uphold this Policy as a matter of mutual respect and fundamental fairness in human relations. Every student of this institution has a responsibility to conduct himself/herself in accordance with this Policy as a condition of enrollment, and every University employee has an obligation to observe University policies as a term of employment.

In addition, one aspect of performance appraisal for University personnel at all levels of supervision and administration will include the qualitative evaluation of their leadership in implementing this Policy. Merit and productivity, free from prohibited bias, will continue to guide decisions relating to employment and enrollment.

Nothing in this Policy prevents a University Community member from filing a complaint with a state or federal agency or court.

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after its algorithms tagged 65,000 Russian users as “interested in treason.” Facebook algorithmically tags users based on their behavior, making it easier for advertisers to target people interested in specific topics. In this case, however, the tag “treason” may have put users under the threat of government intervention. Facebook says it has since removed the interest category.

“Treason was included as a category, given its historical significance. Given it’s an illegal activity, we’ve removed it as an interest category,” a Facebook spokesperson Discount 2018 Mih Jeans Bodycon Custom Cut Stepped Fray Kick Jeans Keen Mih Jeans Best Buy Cheap Official Site Buy Cheap With Credit Card For Sale Discount Sale WL3uN8U6z

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Automated profiling is useful when you’re an orange juice vendor looking for people who say they like orange juice, but a landmark 2016 report from ProPublica found that many of the interests Facebook links to users aren’t self-selected. Facebook records your behavior, then makes inferences on who you may be or what you might like, including your race, gender, sexuality, and religion. As an example, Facebook wouldn’t explicitly ask a user in the profile section whether they are an East Coast liberal or a Southern conservative, but it knows if you live on the east coast versus the south, if you completed high school or college, and, of course, it can make sharp inferences based on “Likes” and whether you, say, clicked an ad for “Defend 2A” versus “March For Our Lives.”

In the case of Facebook’s “treason” label, it would be shockingly feasible to unmask some of these users without access to Facebook’s internal data, as the Guardian’s write-up explains. Advertisers need only create ads targeted specifically to people selected as having that interest, and then attempt to keep track of whoever clicked through.

Let’s be clear: Facebook is an automated profiling machine that synthesizes the enormous amounts of behavior data we create as we click, share, and friend other users. Advertisers can tap into that machine whenever they want, for the right price, and governments can request data. Overall, Facebook hands data over about 75% of the time , according to its 2018 Transparency Report.

“Officially, the internet is not censored in Russia,” Mette Skak, an authority on Russia, told the Guardian. “However, these methods, which Facebook has probably unwittingly given the Russian authorities, make it much easier for governmental agencies to systematically track persons marked as potential traitors.”

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